How GPS Tracking Collars are helping to save Africas Lions and Cheetahs

gps tracking collars

The Internet of Things (IoT) presently offers complex methods of shielding untamed life: correspondence systems can cover wild places; sensors can screen creatures, people and hardware inside them in (close) constant, and control focuses can group different information streams, progressively with the guide of AI (ML) and man-made consciousness (AI), prompting opportune administration mediations.

Smart Parks is a Dutch/United Kingdom based social venture that gives innovation answers for natural life insurance, with an emphasis on cornerstone animal varieties that are fundamental to keeping up the decent variety and usefulness of environmental networks (dim frauds, model, or wildebeest in the Serengeti).

“We began three years prior taking things down a notch in Mkomazi, Tanzania where we were the first to put LoRa sensors inside the horn of a dark rhino,” Smart Parks prime supporter Laurens de Groot told ZDNet. “From that point forward, we have manufactured Smart Parks in Malawi, Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya, Congo, India, Zambia, Namibia and the Netherlands. We are working with accomplices, for example, African Parks, Peace Parks, WWF and numerous others. We’ve additionally provided our sensor innovation to a few existing parks with their own LoRaWAN-foundation, for example, Hluhluwe Imfolozi in South Africa. Right now we have more than seventy rhinos and many different species under our Smart Parks oversight.”

In 2019, Smart Parks propelled the OpenCollar activity, which means ‘to pull in and rouse skilled understudies, specialists, and educated preservationists to create following frameworks that are progressively adaptable and a superior fit for use on various creatures’. The main deliverable from this venture was the secluded OpenCollar Elephant Tracker (subtleties are accessible at, GitHub and, which is as of now under test in Liwonde National Park, an African Parks hold in Malawi. The open-source equipment course may not suit all associations, be that as it may, so Smart Parks likewise sells a scope of gadgets, made in organization with item improvement pro IRNAS.

The most recent Smart Parks/OpenCollar venture includes LoRaWAN-based GPS collars fitted to lions and cheetahs, additionally in Liwonde. Utilizing LoRaWAN network for predator collars permits high-recurrence GPS following, alongside battery life estimated in years as opposed to months.

gps tracking system monitors

Liwonde National Park supervisor Craig Reid stated: “The new LoRa GPS transmitter neckline units, which feed into our Wide Area Network, have had various advantages – in addition to the fact that we get close to live time following, however this comes at a far lower cost than customary satellite GPS collars.

We see a future where we complete the change to this new innovation and can screen our need species precisely, dependably and for an extensive stretch of time in order to illuminate our law implementation and the board methodologies.”

The lightweight predator trackers can deal with cruel outside conditions and can be fitted to existing collars or furnished with belting and stabilizers, Smart Parks said. The trackers can be designed remotely and give nitty gritty notices on temperature, battery use and development (through an accelerometer).

This permits settings to be streamlined for specific species’ standards of conduct, guaranteeing that GPS situating is possibly endeavored when the tracker is reasonably arranged to determine an area from the satellites, which can forestall pointless battery channel.

The ‘minds’ behind these cutting edge trackers is the LR1110 LoRaWAN handset with GNSS and Wi-Fi from Semtech. On account of its low normal opportunity to a position fix (4.5s) and low normal force utilization (27μWh), a LR1110-based tracker offers more noteworthy setup adaptability and expanded battery life.

For instance, a huge warm blooded animal module could run for 100 months taking a position fix at regular intervals, or for two years with a 10-minute fix stretch. By examination, past age gadgets dependent on the U-Blox ZOE M8G module normally convey four-hourly fixes with only a year of battery life.

GPYes tracking collars modules can be minimized and lightweight enough to fit little warm blooded creatures and winged animals, while their quick position-fixing time permits them to adapt to practices that give discontinuous access to GPS signals. Animals that rise up out of thick vegetation or surface adrift just at times are instances of such conduct.

Brilliant Parks’ de Groot is sure about the job of IoT innovation in natural life preservation: “With the quickly advancing industry around the Internet of Things, we are currently likewise equipped for furnishing parks with the capacity to identify discharges utilizing acoustic sensors and perceive gatecrashers with savvy cameras that work with AI. It won’t be long until we can quantify creature wellbeing status remotely too.”

On AI and AI, de Groot says: “As we gather an ever increasing number of information, AI permits us to find progressively personal conduct standards, giving more situational mindfulness that prompts significant knowledge – where do I send my officers best? It likewise takes into consideration more innovation to be sent and work all the more productively. Savvy cameras that can break down on the gadget itself will altogether decrease the time between a poacher getting to a recreation center and the revelation of the interloper.”

Sometime later, inserts may supplant following collars, says de Groot: “A great deal of the untamed life park proprietors would truly like this as the current collars are not extremely charming on the eye and can be badly designed for the creatures. It’s our strategic get this going one day, yet it accompanies admonitions right now.”

Fleet Tracking Sydney Australia

Fleet Tracking with the use of a GPS tracking device is becoming very popular in Sydney, Australia.

GPYes – Sydney Harbour Fleet Management

The use of GPS is utilized to improve overview of your fleet, and reduce overall running costs by increasing operational efficiency.

GPS Trackers for Fleet Management

GPYes provides a vast array of tracking devices that can be used on any vehicle or asset; they come as hard wired, battery and plug and play (portable without wiring).

By using a GPS tracking system you can save your businesses money by reducing insurance claims, theft, unauthorized vehicle usage, fuel usage, servicing costs and potentially even insurance premiums.

Sydney and NSW are both massive areas spread out over a large geographical distance, so keeping track of your vehicles becomes a nightmare. Because of this a GPS tracker is highly recommended for not only fleet managers, but business owners and even sole traders wanting to monitor their vehicles and have a tighter grip over their assets.

GPS Tracking on the Aussie East Coast

The East Coast and NSW has some of the best infrastructure in the country, so satellite tracking over the 3G & 4G mobile network system is a very feasible solution, as opposed to Bluetooth technology. It’s highly accurate, cheap and consistent unlike its BT and satellite GPS counterparts.

Monitor your vehicles always

GPYes GPS Tracking in Sydney will allow you to easily see exactly where all your vehicles are at any time which allows fleet management as efficient as possible, benefiting all stakeholders involved.

GPYes – Sydney area view of the City


Make use of detailed reports which will show statistics about trips taken, addresses stopped at, speed driven, speeding and engine hours.


All these features will allow you to be a better Fleet Manager in Sydney and save countless amounts of money for your business.

5 GPS Tracking Device Benefits

When owning your own business, or managing a fleet of vehicles you are always looking for ways to increase productivity, reduce costs, overheads and improve customer satisfaction.

There are a variety of ways a GPS Tracking Device will benefit your business, and so here they are;

1. Reduce Customer Response Times

A faster reply to your customers is an easy way to increase repeat business, helping to strengthen relationships with your customers.

Having visibility over your fleet with an installed GPS Tracking Device means you can pick the right vehicle for an incoming job, by selecting whatever, or whomever is closest.

2. Increased accuracy in time sheets

Have you ever had an issue with a customer disputing time on a timesheet? Have you found it too hard to justify your hours, because you cant even remember them yourself?

Customers don’t like being overcharged, but when you have reports showing the hours your van was parked out the front of their house or job site, it’s hard to argue with the hours you’ve put in.

Not to mention the benefits when it comes to logging your vehicle usage hours with the tax department.

3. Reduce costly repairs

We all know that a proper service schedule increases the life and resell value of your vehicles, and improper usage of a vehicle reduces it’s life.

When you use a GPS tracking device you can monitor how long it has been in between services, so that you can stick to a proper servicing schedule.

Having that visibility over your employees and how they are driving will give incentive for good behavior driving, increasing your vehicles life by reducing wear and tear.

4. Reduce theft and loss

When you use truck trackers you will instantly know if a truck has been stolen from a yard or overnight stop and be able to alert authorities if it has been stolen and provide the location to aid in recovery.

thief benefits of a gps tracker
Don’t let him get you.

If your vehicle is stolen you can be alerted instantly by the inbuilt alarm system within your GPS vehicle tracking system. Receive an email or SMS to your phone when unwarranted usage occurs.

You can set up a gps geofence, such as a garage, or neighborhood block, and be notified when a vehicle exits.

These alerts will be sent to you instantly over the 4G network, as long as you have a 4G GPS tracker, and not one that works over the bluetooth network!

monitoring with a gps tracking device

5. Decrease the cost of insurance

Insurance companies offer reduced costs as a discount as the chance to retrieve a stolen vehicle greatly increases with a gps tracking system.

When you are running a fleet of vehicles, this saving adds up to be a worthy amount of money.


There are many more benefits to installing a GPS tracking device within your vehicle than just the 5 listed here.

A good GPS tracking system will pay for itself tenfold.

Fit a Bus GPS Tracker today

In the course of recent years, GPS trackers have been utilized by many industries for a variety of reasons; from rentals, taxis, tradesmen like electricians & plumbers, fleet managers and business owners.

These arent the only services that can benefit from the cost reduction savings and productivity enhancements that GPS trackers have to offer.

One commonly overlooked vehicle is a bus. Busses that take our school students to their school, our university students around the city, our business men cross country, and travelers over ferries.

Once upon a time…

There was once a time when the only option was a hard wired gps tracking device requiring external atennas stuck to the front or back windshield; cumbersome gadgets with expensive month to month administration fees, wildly inaccurate positions, extremely slow cold TTFF, lackluster customer support teams and reports that hardly reported anything.

We have come a long way since then, and GPS trackers have advanced significantly.

Who benefits

Organizations and Businesses that would benefit from a GPS tracker installed into their bus include, but are not limited to;

  • University
  • Schools
  • Rentals
  • Government
  • Private
  • Grey Nomads
Grey Nomad adventure mobile

Multiple Bus GPS Tracker solutions

No matter what bus you have, there is a gps tracking solution for you. The most common options would be as follows;

  • OBD Plug and Play
  • Magnetic
  • Battery
  • Hard Wired

School Bus GPS Tracking

Since the unfortunate transport crash in Chattanooga, USA that brought about the tragic passing of five kids, numerous guardians have been inquiring as to why more school busses havent been fitted with GPS Tracking Devices.

It’s a good question, considering how cheap and obtainable the technology is now, there really isnt any excuse to fitting your school bus out with a tracking device.

Had there been a GPS tracking device within that bus, it might have saved some lives.

School benefits

Schools would be set to benefit from a gps tracking device in the following ways:

  • Satisfying worried parents. Bus late back from school camp with a father freaking out? Not a problem.
  • Keep track of milage for tax purposes
  • Ensure the bus is only being used for school related tasks.
  • Make sure your drivers are doing the right thing

Government Bus GPS Tracking

As of 2015, the NSW government has installed over 2800 Bus GPS Trackers on their fleet within Newcastle and Sydney. That’s a whole lot of bus.


Why are they doing it? The main aim of using the tech to better monitor bus drivers, and provide the public with current, real time information on where buses are.

Bus location data is also fed back to ‘smart bus stops’ equipped with signage showing when the next bus will arrive. This is great for customer satisfaction and to help everything run smoothly.

Map overview of busses GPS tracked in Sydney CBD.


Whether you have a single bus, or a fleet of 1000, installing a bus gps tracker has its benefits with lowering cost, monitoring drivers and an increase in customer satisfaction.

GPS and AGPS – What’s the difference?

GPS and AGPS – What they mean

To begin with, the basic definitions are GPS Global Positioning System & aGPS Assisted Global Positioning System. One is assisted, one isn’t.

We recommend you read about how gps works if you are unsure what GPS is.

agps satellite tracking

How it is assisted

aGPS is assisted by the cellular network towers, which are always pulling & updating their GPS locations from orbiting satellites with their own built in GPS receivers.

With this cached location data, they can provide updates to aGPS enabled devices; such as phones, and some GPS Tracking Devices.

GPS is not assisted, so it relies on information pulled directly from satellites to provide location updates.

TTFF – Time To First Fix

Because GPS is pulling location updates directly from the orbiting satellites, rather than having a speedy helping hand from the cellular network, there can be delays if the orbiting satellites are not within close proximity, or line of sight.

The time in which it takes to lock onto multiple satellites to pinpoint where is called Time To First Fix, or commonly abbreviated as TTFF.

GPS TTFF can take anywhere from 30 seconds to a few minutes, depending on a variety of factors such as;

  • Current location
  • Location of satellites above
  • Interference caused by weather
  • Buildings, mountains or other signal wash out

Better line of sight = quicker TTFF

Benefits of aGPS over GPS

Apart from the above benefits of TTFF, being able to utilize the cellular network means that aGPS has the following benefits;

  • Obtaining satellite location data quicker (TTFF)
  • The device is using less processing power
  • Decrease in battery usage
  • Ability to obtain satellite location data indoors, where line of sight may not be optimal.
aGPS and GPS
aGPS and GPS explained diagram

Benefits of GPS over aGPS

Whilst aGPS is faster in finding location data from satellites, GPS provides better accuracy. However, research has shown that the difference is negligible.

Another benefit of GPS is that there is no additional costs, unlike aGPS which will incur extra usage costs as mobile carriers consider it data usage.

Video Explainer differentiating GPS and aGPS

Tracket – A 4G GPS Tracker

Introducing the new and improved GPYes Tracket – a 4G GPS Tracker device which supports the 4G LTE network, as well as continued support for 3G.

As the 4G network bands change in each country, there will be 3 versions of the GPS Tracket that supports a range of bands.

The tracket will continue to function as a GPS OBD Tracking Device which plugs directly into your vehicles diagnostic port, negating the need for costly installation.

4G LTE SIM7500 chips models and supported bands.

  • SIM7500SA: B1/B2/B3/B4/B5/B7/B8/B28 – Latin America, Australia (e.g. Optus, Telsta, Vodafone)
  • SIM7500A: B2/B4/B12 for the USA (e.g. AT&T)
  • SIM7500E: B1/B3/B5/B7/B8/B20 for Europe, Asia (e.g. Vodafone)

4G bands in Australia

  • Australia is currently using these LTE bands:
  • 2100MHz (B1) – Telstra (a handful of sites), Optus, Vodafone
  • 1800MHz (B3) – Telstra, Optus, Vodafone
  • 850MHz (B5) – Vodafone
  • 2600MHz (B7) – Telstra, Optus
  • 900MHz (B8) – Telstra (a handful of sites, utilises spectrum previously used by 2G)
  • 700MHz (B28) – Telstra, Optus, Vodafone (a handful of sites)
  • 2300MHz (B40) – Optus

A 4G GPS Tracker That Works

The GPYes Tracket is a completely plug and play device which requires no wiring or configuration. It was designed with ease of use in mind for fleet managers, business owners and consumers as a turnkey tracking solution.

GPS Over 3G/4G

The Tracket will receive location data from the GPS network & send it to our GPS Tracking System, allowing real time tracking, as well as storing the co-ordinates for later retrieval.

The tracking system is software agnostic and can be viewed from any device

Some of the features of this 4G GPS Tracker device is as follows;

  • Supports a wide range of vehicles by plugging directly into your vehicles OBD
  • Zero Configuration, Zero wiring.
  • 3G/4G Support (Many trackers sold in Australia are sold as 2G only. The 2G Network Shutdown occurred years ago.
  • Satellite GPS Tracking
  • Check Current Vehicle Speed
  • Real Time Tracking & Track/Route Playback
  • Lower Cost of Servicing & Gas
  • Increase Hours That Can Be Billed to Customers.
  • Increased Satisfaction In Your Clientele

8 Ways GPS Trackers Can Save You Money

Overheads and Costs

If you manage your own business or businesses with a fleet of vehicles, you may be doing some research as to whether employing a GPS Tracking system is the right thing to do.

If you wish to reduce your costs and overheads, then it is highly recommended to install a system as soon as possible.

GPS Tracking systems have been known to not only pay for themselves over time, but offer a return on investment unrivaled by anything else.

A $5480 Experiment

A recent experiment by Motorola on the viability and cost savings of GPS tracking systems revealed that on average, $5480 was saved for each worker that had installed a GPS tracker.

A GPYes Tracking System will save your businesses spending in many ways; as well as promote safe driving and keeping your employees honest.

Decrease In Fuel Spending

Fuel is perhaps the greatest cost for a business with a workforce that is always on the road.

Fleet Tracking will allow you to lessen your fuel costs by taking out inefficient fuel exercises cause by poor employee driving behavior; harsh accelleration, speeding, sitting idle when it should be switched off & non work related drives.

Limit mileage by dispatching the closest vehicle to an incoming job, decrease dangerous and inefficient driving techniques, as well as the theft of fuel.

Slashed Insurance Premiums

Depending on your relationship with your insurance provider, and who they are, some will offer a reduction in yearly costs as well as premiums.

Having a GPS tracker will increase the chance of retrieval of a stolen vehicle, which insurance companies love.

It will also show that you are monitoring driver behavior, ensuring they are doing the right thing & not engaging in risky behavior.

Rid yourself of the logbooks

Logbooks and ATO reporting is tedious, employing a GPS tracking system helps you to keep records of where you & your employees have been, KM/milage driven & beginning/end trips.

Car maintenance costs reduced

Promoting better driver behavior works has a direct relationship with your vehicles servicing. Harsh driving increases wear on all parts of your vehicles engine & chassis, not to mention lowering the risk of a complete write off should the worst happen.

A safe driver is also a driver that is taking care of his vehicle.

Efficiency in driving routes

Having an eye over your entire fleet makes scheduling jobs a breeze, by picking the vehicle closest to an incoming job you can cut down on unnecessary driving from vehicles that may have been further away, increasing profitability by increasing billable hours.

Employees; Trust but Verify

GPS Trackers make your employees accountable, if they know they’re being tracked they are inclined to be doing the right thing by you.

You will be able to see if they are using their vehicle for non-company related reasons including side jobs or to help friends & family when they have not asked for permission to do so.

You can easily verify the times they have provided you with when they have arrived/left site. This particular part can be automated with gps geofencing and alerts.

No more unauthorized vehicle routes

Get a good deal on fuel and mileage by checking what course your workers use to get site to site. There might be a shorter or quicker approach to get between stops. This can likewise spare you in expenses of paying extra time to your workers, or improve productivity by permitting another stop or conveyance every day

Greater amount of Billable hours

GPS following permits you to produce precise representative time sheets and accurate invoices, which diminishes the chance of your employees putting down extra hours and customer complaints. On the off chance that unreasonable time is being taken at an assigned stop, you can be made aware of this to improve effectiveness and decrease cost over-runs.

So why do it?

With all of these potential cost savings for your business, the question is: Can you afford not to install GPS tracking?

Still unsure where to begin – see our guide on how to choose a GPS Tracking System

Vehicle Tracking System – A guide on what to look for.

There are many options to choose from when it comes to a vehicle tracking system. Each system has their own pros/cons.

It can be difficult deciding which option to choose, so refer to the listed points below for help when making your choice.

Map Overlay

map overlay vehicle tracking system

A quality map overlays change the entire look and feel of the system.

Look out for detailed labelling for streets, offices, houses & technology parks. A lot of systems withold this information.

Geofence Support

vehicle tracking system geozone

The ability to set up geofences/geozones within the gps vehicle tracking system is an essential module of a quality tracking system.

Having a geofence allows you to keep track of your vehicle(s) without the need to constantly be checking the tracking system.

Alarms & Alerts

geofence alerts alarms

When choosing a tracking system there will ideally be both SMS and email notifications.

Notifications such as overspeed, geofence entry/exit, unknown status, ignition on/off, all delivered directly to your mobile or appearing on your computers web portal.

Log Retention

gps logs for tracking systems

Looking through past weeks, months and years is helpful if you ever find yourself audited or having to justify costs or locations.


Look for quality end user support in your desired language, the location of their helpdesk and the channels in which they provide support.

What GPS vehicle tracker devices are supported by your vehicle tracking system?

Do they only support hard wired options? Only allow for an OBD gps tracker which plug into your OBD port? Battery only?

Having the ability to select multiple types of hardware is essential, depending on what your requirements are; do you want a tracker for car, truck, boat, caravan, container? The list goes on.

Dont get locked in to a vehicle Tracking System

You want to avoid locking yourself into a GPS tracking system which only supports one type of hardware.

What can the Vehicle Tracking System support?

Item you would want to track could be; vans, trucks, passenger cars, SUVs, pets, children, elderly, containers.


Tracker costs, subscription costs & SIM card costs are all factors when deciding on a GPS vehicle tracker system.

Therefore, you want a system with SIM card & subscription costs bundled together, with a once off fee for the tracker.

Avalanche Protection – Is GPS viable?

Avalanche Protection & GPS. An article published by John B. Schleppe and Gérard Lachapelle . Republished from

Avalance Protection abstract

The following execution of a few High Sensitivity Global Positioning System (HSGPS) recipients under torrential slide stored snow was explored. Two field preliminaries were held during April 2006 in the Canadian Rocky Mountains to examine the elements influencing GPS signals and situating execution, to decide if gps is reasonable for torrential slide assurance. The PLAN Group at the University of Calgary has built up the scaled down Global Navigation Asset Tracker (GNAT™) which incorporates the SiRFstar IIe/LP or SiRFstar III GPS beneficiaries with a microcontroller, installed streak stockpiling and a 2.4 GHz Zigbee modem. The test frameworks were set totally down a 6 cm borehole for 2.5 hours with position, speed, time, status and crude perception information gathered at 1 Hz. Post-strategic included deciding GPS signal constriction, pseudorange estimation blunder and accessibility alongside single point position exactness as they identify with the recipients profundity in the snow pack. GPS Signal lessening of around 1.8 dB per meter of snow infiltration was estimated. Strategies for improving the situation underneath the torrential slide trash were explored, bringing about even position RMS estimations of 7.4 m and 2.8 m at snow profundities of 2.0 and 2.68 m separately.


With the ongoing approach of minimal effort High Sensitivity Global Positioning System (HSGPS) collectors for avalanche protection it might be conceivable to find torrential slide exploited people at snow profundities of 2 meters and past. Various makers are creating HSGPS beneficiaries for the wireless market in light of the FCC improved 911 (E911) stage II command, which expects administrators to give the area of a telephone making a 911 call. The prerequisites of E911 necessitate that GPS collector prepared mobile phones be equipped for situating in lessened conditions, for example, developed urban territories and inside. 

Innovative avalanche protection work by organizations, for example, SiRF, ublox, Nemerix and Fastrax came about in L1 collectors equipped for following GPS flags down to C/N0 of 13 dBHz. Could similar recipients that are fit for following through trees, cement and divider board for urban mobile phone clients (Lachapelle et al 2004) additionally be equipped for following through day off flotsam and jetsam to help in the salvage of torrential slide exploited people? This equivalent inquiry was posed about standard affectability GPS recipient execution in 1997 by a couple of clinical specialists from the Mayo Clinic. A pilot concentrate by Stepanek and Claypool (1997), looking into the utilization of GPS for torrential slide salvage, demonstrated that a six channel L1 Motorola Traxar was equipped for situating at profundities of 1 meter in pressed day off (of 0.6 and 0.76 g/cm3 ). 

In the a long time since their examination, next to no investigation into Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) use for Avalanche Protection salvage has been distributed and no maker has joined a GNSS module into their torrential slide guide. In 1997 the expense of GNSS modules just as their low affectability may have been factors constraining acknowledgment. Be that as it may, as of late minimal effort HSGPS beneficiaries have gotten promptly accessible from various producers. The other fundamental piece of any position based salvage gadget, the radio information interface, has additionally advanced in the previous decade to incorporate modules working on ION GNSS 2006, Fort Worth TX, 26-29 September 2006 1/12 models, for example, Bluetooth, Zigbee, IEEE 802.11/15, 802.11a/b/g and various restrictive norms. 

What are the elements constraining the acknowledgment of GNSS as a avalanche protection salvage device? Maybe existing hardware and techniques are adequately compelling to block the requirement for GNSS or maybe GNSS situating execution is considered inadequate. Then again, the absence of follow up concentrates into the practicality of GNSS for torrential slide salvage may have smothered advancement. In either case, an exertion has been made to respond to a portion of these inquiries while giving foundation to future investigations. This exploration will take a gander at the following and situating capacities of two HSGPS recipient models in post torrential slide conditions. Tests were directed under torrential slide kept snow at two locales in the Canadian Rockies during April 2006. The test outcomes are given in this and an information examination is given. Post-strategic incorporates deciding GPS signal constriction, pseudorange estimation blunder, estimation accessibility, and single point position arrangement precision and accessibility as they identify with the snow profundity.


To effectively find torrential slide exploited people with a GNSS recipient, it should give powerful situating to snow profundities containing most of unfortunate casualties, which is in any event 2 meters (Falk et al 1994). The capacity of the rescue team in an avalanche protection rescue situation to rapidly play out a salvage is urgent to the endurance of the torrential slide unfortunate casualties. The slipped by time between the torrential slide and injured individual removal is of specific significance. An investigation of all Swiss torrential slide catastrophes from 1981 to 1991 which demonstrated that unfortunate casualties found inside 15 minutes of the torrential slide had a 92% possibility of endurance and that survivability dropped to 30 % following 35 minutes, 27 % following an hour and a half and 3 % following 130 minutes in the snow pack (on the same page). Tschirky et al (2000) announced that dependent on Swiss measurements, the odds of endurance by partner salvage were multiple times those of salvage by composed salvage groups. On the off chance that the objective is to bring the inquiry party inside the viable scope of a torrential slide handset then GNSS flat position correctnesses of 25 m to 50 m (95 % certainty level) would be satisfactory. Then again, a 10 m GNSS even position exactness (95 % certainty level) or better would be required if the objective is to bring rescuers inside successful testing range.


Utilizing a GNSS recipient for Avalanche Protection insurance so as to find exploited people, it should give powerful situating to snow profundities containing most of unfortunate casualties, which is in any event 2 meters (Falk et al 1994). The capacity of the allies to rapidly play out a salvage is urgent to the endurance of the torrential slide exploited people. The passed time between the torrential slide and injured individual removal is of specific significance. An investigation of all Swiss torrential slide catastrophes from 1981 to 1991 which demonstrated that unfortunate casualties found inside 15 minutes of the torrential slide had a 92% possibility of endurance and that survivability dropped to 30 % following 35 minutes, 27 % following an hour and a half and 3 % following 130 minutes in the snow pack (on the same page). Tschirky et al (2000) revealed that dependent on Swiss measurements, the odds of endurance by buddy salvage were multiple times those of salvage by sorted out salvage groups. On the off chance that the objective is to bring the inquiry party inside the viable scope of a torrential slide handset then GNSS even position exactnesses of 25 m to 50 m (95 % certainty level) would be satisfactory. Then again, a 10 m GNSS flat position precision (95 % certainty level) or better would be required if the objective is to bring rescuers inside powerful examining range, if you desire Avalanche Protection.

Figure 1 – Signal Paths in Avalanche Debris

Figure 1 additionally shows the expanded snow that a sign from an upslope satellite (An) unquestionable requirement enter versus a sign from a down-incline satellite (B) with a similar height edge. Inside this examination, profundity will be utilized to depict the vertical separation a recipient is covered in the garbage. Snow entrance will indicate the straight line separation a view (LOS) signal goes through the snow to arrive at the recipient. The snow infiltration is registered dependent on the collector’s profundity, the slant edge and azimuth of the torrential slide flotsam and jetsam and the GPS satellite’s azimuth and rise edge.


Two tests were conducted in the Canadian Rockies during April 2006 to measure the performance of two HSGPS receiver models under avalanche debris. The first test was performed on April 6, 2006 at Mosquito Creek in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. The second test was conducted on April 11, 2006 at the Fernie Ski Resort in British Columbia, 

Canada. Eight Global Navigation Asset Tracker (GNAT™) systems were used, four equipped with Falcom JP7T GPS modules and the remaining four with JP13 modules. The Falcom JP7T and JP13 GPS modules contain SiRF Technology Inc. SiRFstar IIe/LP and SiRFstar III chipsets separately. The SiRFstar III based frameworks (GNAT3™) were furnished with the Trimble 19 mm square microstrip radio wire, while the SiRFstar IIe/LP based frameworks (GNAT2™) utilized the Sarantel Geohelix-S dynamic helical reception apparatus. The SiRFstar IIe/LP chipsets were running SiRFXTrac firmware, while the SiRFstar III had firmware form 3.1.1. The GNAT™ framework was created by the Plan Group and coordinates GPS modules with a microcontroller, locally available blaze stockpiling and a 2.4 GHz Zigbee modem. Force was given by a solitary 4.2 volt Lithium-Ion battery. The framework was put in a 5 cm measurement by 12 cm long tube shaped fenced in area for the field tests. Figure 2 is a photo of the GNAT™ circuit board with a Trimble dynamic microstrip reception apparatus.

Figure 2 - GNAT™ Sensor Board and Microstrip Antenna

Reference is made to the GPS receiver’s startup thresholds during this research. Manufacturers specify several thresholds including cold start, hot start and tracking. A cold start occurs when the receiver does not have timing, ephemeris or almanac information. A hot start occurs when approximate timing, ephemeris and almanac is available. The tracking threshold specifies the minimum level at which a receiver can continue tracking a signal. Falcom’s specified thresholds for the SiRFstar receivers are given in Table 1.

Table 1 – GPS Receiver Startup Thresholds

Test information gathered at 1 Hz included: position, speed, time, collector status, L1 pseudorange and Doppler estimations, C/N0 and following status. The information was put away in the installed 4 MB streak circle and communicate at regular intervals utilizing the Zigbee modem. Boreholes, 6 cm in distance across, were bored in the postavalanche snow pack at every one of the test destinations. The GNAT™ beneficiaries were fueled up and left superficially until they were following every single accessible satellite. The GNAT™ collectors were then suspended in the boreholes and the main 30 to 50 cm was topped with stuffed day off. Borehole facilitates were estimated utilizing a geodetic quality double recurrence GPS beneficiary and receiving wire. The reception apparatus was determined to the snow surface, counterbalance north from the borehole and double recurrence pseudorange, stage and Doppler estimations were gathered for the span of the test. Three hours of double recurrence information from each webpage was submitted to the online Precise Point Positioning (PPP) administration gave by the Geodetic Service of Natural Resources Canada. Pseudorange and bearer stage estimations are handled utilizing exact satellite ephemeris and clock information (Ghoddousi-Fard and Dare 2006). Evaluated flat situating exactnesses of each borehole are around 20 cm, including the blunder coming about because of the counterbalance estimation.


The first GPS Avalanche Protection execution test was done in Banff National Park, Canada on April 6, 2006. A torrential slide run-out zone on the western part of a mountain south of Mosquito Creek was chosen. The flotsam and jetsam field was around 100 m across and 200 m long. The slant edge was 22° with a tough azimuth of 71°. Figure 3 contains a photo of the torrential slide flotsam and jetsam field taken from beneath and confronting tough. A test area in the field was chosen where the flotsam and jetsam profundity was around 1.7 m. A significant part of the snow surface is secured by squares of pressed day off ice 30 to 40 cm in distance across. At the test start, the best 1 cm of flotsam and jetsam was secured with wet day off. This wet snow expanded to 3 cm during the 3 hour test. Underneath the day off flotsam and jetsam, the mountain side was secured with scree. The mountain top toward the east has a height point of 35°. Tidy trees developing on the south of the run-out incompletely veil GPS flags underneath 5°. A light sprinkle fell during the 3 hour test. Snow tests were taken at profundities of 0.5 m and 1.3 m with densities of 0.47 g/cm3 and 0.50 g/cm3 separately.

Figure 3 – Picture of Test Site at Mosquito Creek, Banff, Alberta

Two 6 cm diameter holes were drilled into the avalanche debris. The lower hole had two GNAT2™ receivers placed at depths of 1.53 m and 1.0 m. A third receiver was placed on top of the hole after it was capped with a snow block. A second borehole, located 1.5 m upslope, held two GNAT3™ receivers placed at depths of 1.45 m and 1.05 m. This hole was completely backfilled with snow. A third GNAT3™ based receiver was placed on the surface; however startup difficulties were encountered and the receiver failed to track satellites. Position, velocity, time and satellite status was collected at 1 Hz. Pseudorange and Doppler data was also collected on the GNAT2™ receivers. Figure 4 shows the relative geometry of the holes and the GPS receiver placement.

Figure 4 – GPS Receiver Placement at Banff, Alberta


Test information gathered incorporated the quantity of GPS satellites for Avalanche Protection followed and the number utilized by the collector to process a position arrangement. This information is abridged in Table 2, with the mean and standard deviation of the satellites followed and utilized given for every collector. The quantity of satellites followed and utilized by the GNAT2™ diminishes the more profound a beneficiary is covered, from a normal of 9 satellites followed superficially to 7.8 satellites at a profundity of 1.53 m. The GNAT3™ experienced issues following at a profundity of 1.05 m where just 3.4 satellites were followed all things considered. Interestingly, before the GNAT3™ at 1.45 m filled its information capacity, it had following execution similar to the surface recipients, following a normal of 9.4 satellites.

Table 2 – GPS Satellite Tracking – Banff, Alberta

Polar plots of the satellites followed by the GNAT2™ at the surface and underneath 1.53 m of snow are appeared in Figure 5. Satellites in the upper east are obstructed by the mountain. Satellite tracks are discontinuous for the recipient underneath the day off.

Figure 5 – Polar Plot of GPS Satellites Tracked by GNAT2™ at the Surface and under 1.5 m of Snow

OBD GPS Tracker – No wiring necessary

Featuring the GPYes Tracket OBD GPS Tracker

A simple plug and play tracker for car, bus & truck.
OBD GPS Tracker Features:

● OBDII and CANBUS protocol, DC 12V and 24V;
● 2G GSM/GPRS 850/900/1800/1900MHz;
● 3G UMTS/HSPA 2100/1900/850/900MHz;
● Plug and play, Small size, no installation cost;
● Support A-GPS (make GPS locating much faster);
● Internal GSM and GPS antennas;
● TCP and UDP protocol;
● Auto sleep mode to save automotive power;
● Wide working temperature range: -30 to +80℃.


GPS Specifications
GPS Module
JRC or U-blox
50 pararrel channels
Position Accuracy
≤ 2.5m
Speed Accuracy
Tracking: -162dBm
Acquisition Time
Cold Start: 29s
Warm Start: 29s
Hot Start: 1s


Telit 3G module UL865; Quectel UG96
3G: UMTS/HSPA 2100/1900/850/900MHz


NXP ARM Cortex M3


Mini USB Port
GPS Antenna
GSM Antenna
OBDII Connector
SAE J1962

Vehicle Protocol
ISO 15765-4 (CAN)
ISO 14230-4 (Keyword Protocol 2000)
ISO 9141-2 (Asian, European, Chrysler vehicles)
SAE J1850 VPW (GM vehicles)
SAE J1850 PWM (Ford vehicles)
ISO 15765
ISO 11898 (raw CAN)
SAE J1939 OBD protocol
Non-legislated OBD protocols (can be added according to customer’s needs):
Single Wire CAN (SW-CAN) – GM proprietary network
Medium Speed CAN (MS-CAN) – Ford proprietary network

General Specifications

Accelerator sensor and shock sensor
Case Material
Operation Voltage
DC 12 or 24V
Active current
Operation Temperature
-30 to +80℃
Operating Humidity
5% to 95%, non-condensing