The IP (Ingress Protection) ratings are used to indicate the level of protection provided by electrical enclosures or casings against various environmental factors, including weather.
IP ratings are typically used to assess the protection of electronic devices, electrical equipment, and other enclosures from foreign objects (such as dust) and water.
IP ratings consist of two digits. The first digit represents the level of protection against solid particles, and the second digit represents the level of protection against water. Let’s go through each digit and its corresponding protection:
- First Digit (Protection against Solid Particles):
- IP0X: No special protection against solid particles. No protection from objects or dust.
- Second Digit (Protection against Water):
- IPX0: No special protection against water. No protection from water ingress.
Together, these ratings (e.g., IP00, IP01, IP10) do not provide any meaningful protection against weather or other environmental factors.
For weather protection, you’ll want to consider higher IP ratings that offer better protection against solid particles (dust) and water. Common weather-resistant IP ratings include:
- IP65: Dust-tight and protected against water jets. It can withstand light rain and splashes but not submersion.
- IP66: Dust-tight and protected against powerful water jets. Provides better protection against rain and water exposure.
- IP67: Dust-tight and protected against immersion in water up to 1 meter for 30 minutes. Suitable for more demanding weather conditions.
- IP68: Dust-tight and protected against continuous immersion in water beyond 1 meter. Offers high-level protection against heavy rain, water submersion, and harsh weather conditions.
When choosing electronic devices or enclosures for outdoor use, it’s essential to consider the IP rating to ensure they can withstand the specific weather conditions they will be exposed to.
First digit – protection from foreign body and particulate ingress:
|0||(or X – see section below): Not rated (or no rating supplied) for protection against ingress of this type.|
|1||Protection against solid objects larger than 50mm (accidental hand contact with open palm), but not against deliberate body contact.|
|2||Protection against solid objects larger than 12mm (accidental finger contact).|
|3||Protection against solid objects larger than 2.5mm (tools and wires).|
|4||Protection against solid objects larger than 1mm (fine tools and wires, nails, screws, larger insects and other potentially invasive small objects)|
|5||Partial protection against dust and other particulates, such that any ingress will not damage or impede the satisfactory performance of internal components.|
|6||Full protection against dust and other particulates, including a vacuum seal, tested against continuous airflow.|
Second digit – protection from moisture ingress:
|0||(or X – see the section below): Not rated (or no rating supplied) for protection against ingress of this type.|
|1||Protection against vertically falling droplets, such as condensation, sufficient that no damage or interrupted functioning of components will be incurred when an item is upright.|
|2||Protection against vertically dripping water when the enclosure is tilted up to 15° off vertical.|
|3||Protection against direct moisture spray at angles up to 60° off vertical.|
|4||Protection against splashing water from any direction, tested for a minimum of 10 minutes with an oscillating spray (limited ingress permitted with no harmful effects).|
|5||Protection against low-pressure jets (6.3 mm) of directed water from any angle (limited ingress permitted with no harmful effects).|
|6||Protection against powerful jets (12.5 mm nozzle) of directed water from any direction.|
|7||Protection against full immersion for up to 30 minutes at depths between 15 cm and 1 metre (limited ingress permitted with no harmful effects).|
|8||Protection against extended immersion under higher pressure (i.e. greater depths). Precise parameters of this test will be set and advertised by the manufacturer and may include additional factors such as temperature fluctuations and flow rates, depending on equipment type.|
|9K||Protection against high-pressure, high-temperature jet sprays, wash-downs or steam-cleaning procedures – this rating is most often seen in specific road vehicle applications (standard ISO 20653:2013 Road Vehicles – Degrees of protection).|